CHAPTER 5

CAUSE ANALYSIS: DON’T ASSUME TRAINING IS THE ANSWER, DON’T ASSUME ANYTHING!
KEY POINTS:
® Training is just one possible answer to a performance gap.
® The difference between optimal and actual is the performance gap.
® Your basic question is: “Why does the performance gap exist?”
® There are a number of systematic methods you can use for determining causes.
® Try to create levels or classes of causes.
· In HPI you should not assume that a performance gap indicates a need for training
· CA is used to determine why the performance gap exists and identify the factors that are contributing to it.
o Allows for HPI professional to choose most effective intervention to close gap
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW AND DO:
· Know how to define CA
· Understand the purpose of CA
· Know how to place CA in the HPI structure
10 COMMON CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE GAPS:
1. lack of knowledge or skills on the part of the workers
a. correctable by job aid or performance tool
2. lack of proper physical resources to do the job
a. necessitates change in the work process
3. weak link in the structure of process of the work
4. need for more information concerning the job
a. requires modification of company objectives, improved mgmt communications or need for documentation
5. lack of or change in leadership
6. lack of information about consequences of poorly done work
7. problem with motives and expectations of workforce
8. inadequate feedback
9. inadequate incentives/rewards
10. performer’s lack of capacity to do the job
a. due to hiring, selection or promotion
METHODS FOR PERFORMING CAUSE ANALYSIS
  • 3 things needed to determine cause of performance gap:
1. What is optimal for this aspect?
2. What is actual for the company?
3. Is this difference enough to cause the performance gap?
  • Why does the performance gap exist?
    • It stops you from doing the wrong things for the right reason.
  • Methods:
® Structured brainstorming
1. Agree on the central question
2. Have each member offer one idea
3. Record suggestions
4. Go back and generate all ideas that relate to each suggestion
5. Review the total list for clarity and duplication
® Fishbone Diagrams
o Graphically display in increasing detail possible causes related to a problem
o Best used for preliminary work
® The Five Whys
    • Tells the story of causes and effects starting from back to front
1. Write down the problem
2. Ask and answer the question, “Why does this happen?”
3. Turn each answer into the next why question
4. Repeat for five iterations
5. Keep track of relationships between cause statements and next level of why
® Other Methods:
o Surveys
o Interviews
o Simulated demonstrations
o Panels
o Reviews of performance data
o Interviews of deficient performers
o Reviews of records
SUMMARY
· CA is the link between the performance analysis that defines performance problems and the interventions that make the analysis worth the time and money spent on it
· CA can be very systematic
o Use of root cause analysis tools or interviews and observations