Midterm Notes- Chapter 1
What is HPI? What makes a Performance Consultant? How can you tell if you already are one?

Principle One: HPI uses a results-based, systematic approach. There are three approaches for closing a performance gap
  • Wants- based approach
a) What client wants, client gets; consultant doesn’t question whether or not the requested intervention will be of any long-term value
b) Does not focus just on training
  • Needs-based approach
a) Activities that are implemented in response to a specific performance gap
b) Only the people with documented performance gap are expected to participate in the intervention
c) Ways to identify performance gap: knowledge test administered to employees; observation of employees; recommendations from management; analysis of performance data
  • Results- based approach
a) Must be driven by a business need and a performance need and must be justified by results of cause analysis
b) Works in the following sequence
1. Identify an organizational problem
2. Articulate a relationship between problem and human performance
3. Determine a quantifiable performance gap between the desired level of performance versus the actual level of performance
4. Conduct an analysis of the root causes to reveal the reasons for the performance gap
5. Implement a series of solutions to address the root causes
HPI is systematic because it follows a process for articulating business goals, diagnosing performance problems, recommending targeted solutions and implementing those solutions, managing cultural issues, and evaluating the intervention’s success. See page 5, Figure 1-2 for the HPI model
Principle Two: Begin by focusing on accomplishments instead of behavior
  • Accomplishments are easier to measure & accomplishing goals is what gets you to the desired business result
  • With the HPI approach, begin by assessing the desired business result and then figure out what people will have to accomplish to reach this goal
Principle Three: Organizations are systems
  • One of the cornerstones of HPI is the idea of systems thinking
  • According to Rummler and Brache (1995), there are 3 distinct parts of an organization’s performance system:
1. The organization level- encompasses relationship between the organization and its market
2. The process level- considers the flow of work as it cuts across departments. Example: when looking at process level of performance, consider such elements as workflow, job design, required input and desired outputs, and outlying processes required to support the performance being analyzed.
3. The job/performer level- focuses on hiring and promotion, individual performance goals, past levels of performance, etc.
Any successful intervention will target all three levels of performance to make a significant difference.